Yupik Shamanism and Interesting Yupik Masks

The Yupik community, inhabitants of the Arctic Region for millennia, are commonly acknowledged for their distinctive dance masks. Nevertheless, beyond the cultural acclaim of these masks, their perseverance amid the hostile climatic conditions and the consequential challenges posed by the freezing temperatures offer an

Transhumance and Transhumant Pastoralism

Transhumant pastoralism denotes a socio-ecological strategy characterized by the cyclic movement of livestock herds between distinct altitudinal zones, orchestrated to optimize resource utilization in response to seasonal fluctuations. This age-old practice reflects a nuanced symbiosis between human agency, animal husbandry, and ecological dynamics, fostering

Animatism and Mana: Early Stages of Religious Evolution

Animatism, a fundamental concept in the study of primal religion, encompasses the belief in a generalized and impersonal power that permeates the natural world. Nourished by the concept of life force, this belief system endows both living beings and lifeless objects with otherworldly attributes.

Deer Totem and Spirit Animal in Shamanism

The deer totem can be defined as a symbolic representation of the deer species in various cultures and spiritual traditions. Totem animals are usually adopted by a particular group or community. The symbolic meanings of these animals can vary both according to the beliefs,

Pastoral Nomadism: Origins and Characteristics

Pastoral nomadism is a distinctive form of pastoralism that centers on the herding of livestock to locate fresh grazing pastures. Unlike transhumance, which maintains fixed seasonal pastures, pastoral nomads follow an irregular pattern of movement, adapting to the dynamic environmental conditions. What is Pastoral

Hunter-Gatherer Lifestyle in Prehistoric Times

The hunter-gatherer lifestyle, a prominent mode of subsistence during prehistoric times, represents an ancient socio-economic system practiced by human populations before the advent of agriculture and sedentary civilizations. Rooted in the principles of foraging and resource acquisition, this mode of existence entailed a decentralized

Aboriginal Peoples and Their Animal Totems

For thousands of years, Aboriginal peoples have lived in close connection with the nature, developing intricate relationships with the animals they share the land with. Through their animal totems, these communities have found guidance, protection, and a deep sense of belonging to the earth.